Wind Wizard: Alan G. Davenport and the Art of Wind Engineering

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Brand new: lowest price The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging where packaging is applicable. Establishing the first dedicated "boundary layer" wind tunnel laboratory for civil engineering structures, Davenport enabled the study of the atmospheric region from the earth's surface to three thousand feet, where the air churns with turbulent eddies, the average wind speed increasing with height.

See details. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information With "Wind Wizard," Siobhan Roberts brings us the story of Alan Davenport , the father of modern wind engineering, who investigated how wind navigates the obstacle course of the earth's natural and built environments--and how, when not properly heeded, wind causes buildings and bridges to teeter unduly, sway with abandon, and even collapse.

In , Davenport received a confidential telephone call from two engineers requesting tests on a pair of towers that promised to be the tallest in the world. His resulting wind studies on New York's World Trade Center advanced the art and science of wind engineering with one pioneering innovation after another. The boundary layer wind tunnel mimics these windy marbled striations in order to test models of buildings and bridges that inevitably face the wind when built.

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Chronicling Davenport's innovations by analyzing select projects, this popular-science book gives an illuminating behind-the-scenes view into the practice of wind engineering, and insight into Davenport's steadfast belief that there is neither a structure too tall nor too long, as long as it is supported by sound wind science. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Siobhan Roberts' style has literary merit. We're committed to providing low prices every day, on everything. So if you find a current lower price from an online retailer on an identical, in-stock product, tell us and we'll match it.

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Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. All Rights Reserved. Cancel Submit. How was your experience with this page? Needs Improvement Love it! The validation for the CFD simulation in the current study is conducted for an isolated tall building. Figure 6 shows the contour plots of mean Cp on front and lee faces of the building resulting from the current study and from other numerical and experimental studies a mean Cp a RMS C p Figure 6.

The LES work conducted by Dagnew and Bitsuamlak adopted three different techniques for inflow generation, while the experimental work was conducted by Dragoiescu et al, It is found that the Cp distributions obtained from the LES is in good agreement with those obtained from the wind tunnel testing Elshaer et al. This model was tested in a water flume as well as a boundary layer wind tunnel located at RWDI in Guelph specified for qualitative visualization purposes Figure 7.

The use of the water flume and wind tunnel allowed greater control over the visualization medium and ease in switching from one area of interest to another, enabling detailed investigations of problematic areas. Figure 7. Methods of testing and validation 4. While it can be argued that the water flume cannot provide as accurate a simulation as a boundary layer wind tunnel, its slow speed and basic fluid dynamic principles allow a much clearer qualitative examination of the uncomfortable areas caused by the effects of wind.

The slowness allows for an investigation of the flow field and shows the causes of certain effects clearly. While most investigations into areas of high velocities were performed in the water flume, the use of the boundary layer wind tunnel allowed for added validation of the direction and effects of the flows seen in the CFD simulations and the water flume. Figure 8 shows the complexities of wind in the urban environment of the Financial District and the wind fields at different heights.

While this study focuses on wind velocities at pedestrian heights 1. The wind fields at different elevations depict the paths of Figure 8. Changes in wind speeds over heights the winds and demonstrate how high wind speeds slow down as they are broken up or speed up if they are redirected around buildings and to pedestrian levels.

The computational wind simulations are presented as contour plots of velocity magnitude on a horizontal plane at 1.

The range was selected to focus on the values associated with pedestrian safety and comfort. Areas of interest are expanded upon in the following sections. Where required for detailed inspection, images from the flow visualization experiments in the water flume and wind tunnel have been presented.

Wind Wizard : Alan G. Davenport and the Art of Wind Engineering

Figure 9. As can be seen in Figure 10, the mean velocity color plot shows a different distribution of wind speeds than the instantaneous velocity color plot. At the center of the study area specifically Figure 10, i , there is a greater area of uncomfortable winds red zones instantaneously than there are on average.

While zones of critical discomfort red zones can be defined by mean velocities, higher instantaneous velocities can cause noticeable Figure Plots of the a mean and b instantaneous velocities discomfort as well. While the mean velocities represent uncomfortable speeds, these measurements do not include fluctuations that can also affect comfort. In Figure 10, location i the red area has a high mean wind speed, but the wind speed does not change frequently rms and does not experience many peak velocities. In Figure 11, Figure This means that in area ii there are consistently fast moving winds that are fluctuating from faster to slower, that would cause more annoyance to pedestrians than area i.

WIND WIZARD by Siobhan Roberts | Kirkus Reviews

It is important to note that the instantaneous critical zones or the peak critical zones can only be captured through transient i. In a typical suburb winds tend to flow over low-rise buildings. Winds seldom tend to be directed into the spaces between buildings because the areas are relatively evenly pressurized Figure 12, a. When a tall building is added to an area with relatively low surroundings, fast moving winds at high elevations are intercepted by the tall building and redirected to ground level in a phenomenon called downwashing Figure 12, b.

Winds also accelerate around buildings corners and can channel through relatively narrow street canyons between tall buildings, resulting in high wind activity Figure 12, c. To respond to these fast moving winds at pedestrian Figure These are some of the common wind flow patterns resulting from building-wind interactions and are of importance in the following discussion. Before the major high-rise development began in the study area, wind speeds were low as can be seen by the blue and green zones in Figure 9, Typically, as taller buildings were added in subsequent years, wind velocities at pedestrian levels began to increase, as indicated by the growing red zones in Figure 9.

Based on the evolution of wind flow patterns, four main areas of the site have been investigated further — the Northern corridor between First Canadian Place and Scotia Plaza; the Eastern and Southern Corridor and the adjacent Commerce Complex; the West Corridor housing the Dominion Center towers; and the lower South corridor of the Royal Bank Plaza Figure North Corridor As shown in Figure 9, , many of the buildings around the intersection are low- rise, with one mid-rise tower to the west of the intersection and a few about a block away to the north and east.

While wind speeds appear generally low blue and green zones in Figure 14 a ,, higher wind activity can be observed near the mid-rise towers red and yellow zones in Figure 9, In , the newly added tower ii intercepts and redirects west winds down to street level. Prior to the addition of the building, winds would flow through the site. However, in , the pressure differential created by building ii creates a suction effect that re-routes the downwashed winds North, against the mean direction of flow.

The flow splits and increases in speed in both North and South directions as seen in the stills from the tests in the water flume in Figure 14 b. In , tower iii is added and the wind speeds on the North-South oriented street reduce significantly because the west winds are deflected to the roof of podium iv , upwind of building ii. This can be seen in Figure 14 a , This area continues to improve in , however in and some corner acceleration occurs once again as tall towers constructed north of the area divert winds down as seen in Figure 9.

However, wind speeds are seen to increase on the East-West oriented street as tall buildings such as iii are constructed as seen in Figure 14 a , and Figure In , building ii is constructed and is exposed to east-northeasterly winds. Initially, these winds accelerate and wash down the exposed eastern facade and then accelerate into the alley between building ii and building iv , resulting in a large area of high wind activity that potentially disrupted the comfort of the southern corridor and adjacent alleyway red zones in Figure 15 a , Downwind of the alley, these winds rush into the wake on the leeward side of the building.

This vortex effect can be seen in more detail in the stills from the water flume test in Figure 15 b as the dye curls back toward the building and moves up the leeward face of the building in the wake zone.

In , this vortex system gains velocity, in part due to the addition of tower v although it is located north of building ii. The addition of tower v adds blockage that would in turn create more suction downwind and may be the Figure As more towers are added in the following years and the city densifies, the high wind speeds remain consistent until where they lose some intensity see red zones in Figure 9, Additionally, Figure 9, from to , suggests that downwashing and corner acceleration are generated from the addition of tower ii in relation to the Westerly winds.

West Corridor In , when the buildings in the area are all low-rise, wind speeds are low blue and green zones in Figure 16 a , Between and , buildings are demolished and a large area in the West corridor was cleared for the construction of towers ii and iii. Without buildings located to the west, the towers became exposed to the strong westerly winds. Winds can be seen to accelerate around the exposed western facade and corners of buildings ii and iii and meet the ground with an increased velocity as they are channeled in between the closely spaced towers, resulting in a large area of high wind velocity that potentially disrupted the comfort Figure The tests in the wind tunnel in Figure 16 b confirmed these effects in In , when building iv and v were constructed, the channeling effect was accentuated and covered a larger area with uncomfortable wind velocities Figure 16 a , This remained constant until when another tower was constructed upwind of the area just East of building iii in Figure 16 a , This building and others upwind must have reduced the suction effect and thereby, wind conditions are seen to improve in As more towers are added in the following years and the city densified, newer areas of high wind accelerations can be observed, but they remain localized around the tower bases see red zones in Figure 9, and Lower South Corridor In , when the buildings in the area were all low-rise, wind speeds were low blue and green zones in Figure 9, ENE.

In , when the tower i was constructed, the winds with no obstruction prior to this , washed down and accelerated with great speed into the street corridor red zone Figure 17 a , In , building iii is constructed, resulting in an increase in the negative pressures downwind of the building iii caused by the east-north-easterly winds in This addition significantly increases the suction occurring, therefore wind speeds increase as seen in Figure 17 a , However, in tower iv is constructed across the street, and tower v is constructed upwind.

The podium of tower v blocks strong winds that channel in between from reaching street level, although red areas can still be seen in Figure 17 a that hit building ii , wash down and accelerate into the street. In the stills from the water flume in Figure 17 b , the flows coming from the ENE can be seen to strongly accelerate and channel into the street around tower ii. The area that these high speed winds cover remains consistent well into as can be seen in Figure 9, ENE, Lower south corridor 6.

Since wind is invisible, largely impacted by turbulence, and the field of wind engineering is very specialized, understanding the role of architectural aerodynamics in the design of a city is not a simple task. The flow visualization of the relationship between the change in wind speeds and the densification of urban areas highlights the complexities and signifies potentials to assess and account for wind in design. While there are many factors that can alter the results criteria used, height of the wind studied, quality of the simulation and turbulence model used an assessment of the growth of the city can aid in its planning.

These methods allow specific areas to be investigated, focusing on issues and tracing the patterns to expose not only the effects, but the causes. The appeal of a computational method for analyzing these effects is the accessibility in comparison to wind tunnel methods. The use of CFD has also allowed the study of larger amounts of time and larger urban areas in relatively simple and accurate ways. If incorporated into design, this assessment, and others like it, can enable a new type of thinking and approach to wind in design.

While not yet a standard in architectural practice, further developments in computational services, three-dimensional visualizations, and full- scale simulations can make these methods more accessible. The intent is that the visual and time dependent nature of this research will improve the communication between wind engineers and architects and allow designers to not only see the significance of wind in design, but to use it.

The authors are also grateful for access to the high-performance computing facility that is SharcNet and the support received from their excellent technical team. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, , — Tokyo: Architectural Institute of Japan, Accessed January 18, Arkon, C.